Methane Hydrates in Quaternary Climate Change The Clathrate Gun Hypothesis by James P. Kennett

Cover of: Methane Hydrates in Quaternary Climate Change | James P. Kennett

Published by American Geophysical Union .

Written in English

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  • Weather,
  • Nature,
  • Climatic changes,
  • Methane,
  • Paleoclimatology,
  • Quaternary,
  • Science/Mathematics

Book details

The Physical Object
Number of Pages216
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL11164605M
ISBN 100875902960
ISBN 109780875902968

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out of 5 stars Methane Hydrates in Quaternary Climate Change Reviewed in the United States on November 9, This is a great book as a clear and detailed account of the role methane and frozen methane (Clathrates) play in the earth's by:   Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Special Publications Series.

Like most Earth scientists, we are intrigued and amazed by recent discoveries from ice-core and marine sediments that global climate and the ocean-atmosphere system can abruptly switch from glacial to near-interglacial temperatures within decades. methane hydrates as a critical component of the climate system in providing cru- cially needed energy to force and accelerate abrupt climate change.

Our interest in the potential relations between climate change and methane. Methane Hydrates in Quaternary Climate Change: The Clathrate Gun Hypothesi. James P. Kennett.

Search for more papers by this author. Kevin G. Cannariato. Book Author(s): James P. Kennett. Search for more papers by this author. Kevin G. Cannariato. Search for more papers by this by:   Methane Hydrates in Quaternary Climate Change: The Clathrate Gun Hypothesis James P. Kennett, Kevin G.

Cannariato, Ingrid L. Hendy, Richard J. Behl Wiley, - Science. Get this from a library. Methane Hydrates in Quaternary Climate Change book hydrates in Quaternary climate change: the clathrate gun hypothesis. [James P Kennett;] -- Recent discoveries from ice-core and marine sediments suggest that global climate systems can change from glacial to near-interglacial temperatures within decades.

In order to. Methane Hydrates and Contemporary Climate Change As the evidence for warming climate became better established in the latter part of the 20th century (IPCC ), some scientists raised the alarm that large quantities of methane (CH4) might be liberated by widespread destabilization of climate-sensitive gas hydrate deposits trapped in marine.

In Methane Hydrates in Quaternary Climate Change, James Kennett, Kevin Cannariato, Ingrid Hendy, and Richard Behl present the “clathrate gun hypothesis,” a progression of provocative ideas that can.

The spatial distribution of climate-susceptible gas hydrates, the strong sinks that consume much of the methane released from gas hydrate breakdown before the gas reaches the atmosphere, and the. The blogosphere for years has been abuzz, and particularly in recent weeks, with information – and, equally importantly, misinformation – about the near-term risks posed by uncontrollable and potentially catastrophic releases of large Arctic deposits of methane hydrates, ice-like substances holding a powerful greenhouse gas.

Highly vocal have been voices cautioning about existing or. The interaction of climate change and methane hydrates Carolyn D. Ruppel1 and John D. Kessler2 1US Geological Survey, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA, 2Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA Abstract Gas hydrate, a frozen, naturally-occurring, and highly-concentrated form of methane, sequesters significant carbon in the global.

out of 5 stars Methane Hydrates in Quaternary Climate Change Reviewed in the United States on November 9, This is a great book as a clear and detailed account of the role methane and frozen methane (Clathrates) play in the earth's atmosphere. Hypotheses suggesting positive feedback between modern climate change and the release of methane from dissociating gas hydrates are based on the susceptibility of gas hydrates to pressure and temperature changes, the large amount of CH 4 sequestered in gas hydrates, and paleoclimate studies that have implicated such a feedback during certain.

Climate change impacts on methane hydrates > Huge amounts of methane are stored around the world in the sea floor in the form of solid methane hydrates. These hydrates represent a large energy reserve for humanity.

Climate warming, however, could cause the hydrates to destabilize. The methane, a potent greenhouse gas, would escape unused into. Scientists estimate 1, gigatonnes of carbon are locked up in subsea hydrates (frozen methane and other gases) under Arctic submarine permafrost, some of.

Atmospheric composition, radiative forcing, and climate change as a consequence of a massive methane release from gas hydrates.

Paleoceanography. Methane hydrates are white, icelike solids that consist of methane and water. They are an untapped potential future energy source. The methane molecules are enclosed in microscopic cages composed of water molecules.

Polar ice cores document large oscillations in atmospheric methane (CH 4) associated with Quaternary climate cycles on orbital, millennial, and decadal time scales (1, 2).Dramatic warmings during the first few decades of interglacials and interstadials coincided with rapid atmospheric CH 4 increases ().These rises in CH 4 have been attributed to, in one hypothesis, enhanced methanogenesis in.

Methane hydrates have been implicated as a possible forcing mechanism for rapid climate change during the late Quaternary, via the release of methane from marine reservoirs. Carbon isotopic excursions of foraminifera observed in high-resolution sediment records from Santa Barbara Basin (ODP Site ) have been interpreted as evidence of.

The “methane-led hypotheses” assume that gas hydrates and marine seeps are the sole geologic factors controlling Quaternary atmospheric and climate changes. Nevertheless, a wider class of geologic sources of methane exist which could have played a role in past climate changes. The BookShelf: Methane hydrates in Quaternary climate change: The clathrate gun hypothesis.

The recent paper in Geosciences, “Understanding the Permafrost–Hydrate System and Associated Methane Releases in the East Siberian Arctic Shelf” by Shakhova, Semiletov, and Chuvilin, (henceforth “S”), contains a number of false statements about our paper, “Methane fluxes from the sea to the atmosphere across the Siberian shelf seas”, (henceforth “T”).

In fact, the increasing attention regarding gas hydrates is increasing from: (1) the assessment of methane hydrates as a new ‘clean’ energy source, (2) the relationship between gas hydrate and global climate, and (3) the geological hazards related to the gas hydrate.

The science fiction novel Mother of Storms by John Barnes offers a fictional example of catastrophic climate change caused by methane clathrate release. In The Life Lottery by Ian Irvine unprecedented seismic activity triggers a release of methane hydrate, reversing global cooling.

Recognizing the importance of methane hydrate research and the need for a coordinated effort, the United States Congress enacted the Methane Hydrate Research and Development Act of At the same time, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry in Japan launched a research program to develop plans for a methane hydrate exploratory drilling project in the Nankai Trough.

clathrate; climate; Large but poorly known amounts of methane are trapped in the sediments beneath the sea floor, frozen into a form of water ice called methane hydrate (1–3).The hydrates could be vulnerable to melting with a deep ocean warming of a few degrees Celsius (3–6), which is obtainable given the available inventories of fossil fuel carbon for combustion.

Quaternary and present-day climate change do affect the stability of gas hydrate reservoirs, but at long timescales where hydrate volumes are large, and on short timescales where hydrate volumes are small.

Consequently, gas hydrates dissociate to an extent that is too small or at a pace that is too slow to create a strong positive feedback effect. 2. Methane hydrates. Methane hydrates occur wherever there is a combination of low temperatures and/or high pressure and sufficient organic carbon (Henriet and Mienert, ; Kvenvolden, ; Paull and Dillon, ).There may be up to 10, GtC carbon stored in methane hydrates (MacDonald, ; KvenvoldenKvenvolden ; Buffett, ; Kvenvolden and Lorenson.

to propose the “clathrate gun hypothesis,” which postulates that deep-sea methane hydrates played a significant role in late quaternary climate changes. Thus far, evidence for such methane releases in the glacial world is limited to a few regions (8, 9), and the mechanism by which the methane passed through the water column, and.

Gas Hydrates and the Arctic. Many authors have demonstrated that climate change is occurring and is particularly pronounced in the Arctic [24–26].Because the Arctic plays a special role in global climate, these changes will also affect the rest of the world [].Global climate change is likely amplified in the Arctic by several positive feedbacks, including surface albedo decreased by ice.

Methane hydrates store huge volumes of methane formed by the bacterial decay of organic matter or leaked from underlying oil and natural gas deposits. The active formation of methane hydrates in the shallow crust prevents methane, a greenhouse gas, from entering the atmosphere.

On the other hand, warming of arctic sediments or ocean waters has the potential to cause methane hydrate to. Methane as a Greenhouse Gas. First some basics: methane (CH 4) is a very simple molecule (one carbon surrounded by four hydrogen atoms) and is created predominantly by bacteria that feed on organic dry conditions, there is plenty of atmospheric oxygen, and so aerobic bacteria which produce carbon dioxide (CO 2) are in wet areas such as swamps, wetlands and in.

Climate change. A recent publication 34 thoroughly documents evidence for Late Quaternary climate change caused by hydrates, commonly called 'the hydrate gun hypothesis'. The concept is that, as. One of the greatest uncertainties surrounding climate warming [concerns] the emission of naturally accurring greenhouse gases, such as methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide (N2O) from Arctic thawing permafrost, and collapsing methane hydrates—crystals made of methane gas molecules "caged" between solid water molecules—in the seabed.

Methane Hydrates in Quaternary Climate Change: The Clathrate Gun Hypothesis. 54, (). Sowers T. Science, - (). Hinrichs. “Methane hydrates have and will continue to play a key role in climate change,” he predicts, “ [but] the climate community has largely not accepted the idea of a role.” Kennett believes that the greatest potential of rapid methane release into the atmosphere is from sediments under the ocean, not in wetlands as others propose.

The methane circus. 5th - 6th grade • Links to standards Students learn about the role methane hydrates played in animal evolution during the Cambrian Explosion, million years ago.

Students also learn how methane hydrates may contribute to climate change. Kennett J. Methane Hydrates in Quaternary Climate Change: The Clathrate Gun Hypothesis American Geophysical Union ().

Portnov A., Vadakkepuliyambatta S., Mienert J. & Hubbard A. Ice-sheet-driven methane storage and release in the Arctic. Delisle, G. Temporal variability of subsea permafrost and gas hydrate occurrences as a function of climate change in the Laptev Sea, Siberia. Polarforschung68, – [Google Scholar] Semiletov, I.P.

On aquatic sources and sinks of CO 2 and CH 4 in the Polar Regions. Atmos. Sci.56, – [Google Scholar]. Sudden release of methane from gas hydrate therefore has the potential to affect global climate. Dickens (a) has proposed that gas hydrate may act as a sort of capacitor in the global carbon and climate cycle, storing large amounts of methane until nature triggers a change in the system that results in destabilization, releasing it to the.

Climate change could warm up the oceans so much in the next few millennia that substantial volumes of hydrate – particularly in shallow marine areas – could dissociate. The released methane that is not completely broken down during its short path to the surface could end up in the atmosphere after all.

“The hydrate dissociation and related methane leakage to our oceans is a long-term process that can last for several centuries, and it can lead to a significant amplification of the climate change effects and to changes in the oceans chemistry, for instance, in the form of further acidification,” Ketzer continued.

An MIT study has solved the mystery of how and why columns of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, can stream out of solid sea-floor formations known as methane hydrates.

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